Radiology Summaries

Hands-free, Wireless Goggles for Near-infrared fluorescence and Real-time Image-guided Surgery
Achilefu, Samuel ; Akers, Walter ; Bauer, Adam ; Culver, Joseph ; Liu, Yang

— Background: Current cancer management faces several challenges, including high occurrence of residual tumor after resection, adverse effects from sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy, and use of bulky systems in surgical suites for image guidance. Technology Description: To overcome these limitations, …

Range finder to improve X-ray image collection
Clayton, William ; Don, Steven

— Technology Description Researchers at Washington University in St. Louis have developed a device that automatically measures and displays body thickness to optimize X-ray image collection. This device will improve X-ray image quality and reduce the radiation exposure to patients. The device es…

Real-time 3D MRI
Kim, Taeho ; Park, Chunjoo

— Technology Description Researchers at Washington University in St. Louis have developed a method for real-time, high-resolution 3D MRI that can be used in diagnostic MRI and MRI-guided radiotherapy (MRgRT). MRgRT combines medical imaging with radiation therapy to provide visualization of the tumor…

Dual Light-Emitting Systems and Biological Applications Thereof
Achilefu, Samuel ; Berezin, Mikhail ; Zhang, Zongren

— Background: Near Infrared (NIR) fluorescence can be highly useful in biological systems as it is highly sensitive and allows for detection and imaging of physiological and molecular processes in cells and living organisms. However, radiometric imaging is difficult in the NIR region of the light spec…

MR Method for Quantification of Anisotropic Diffusion
Conradi, Mark ; Sukstansky, Alexander ; Yablonskiy, Dmitriy

— Magnetic Resonance (MR) is known to allow quantitative measurements of molecular diffusion in different materials. Such materials are frequently composed of structural units. Boundaries of these units serve as restrictive barriers for diffusing molecules. In case of structurally anisotropic units,…

Improved MRI resolution with Diffusion Dictionary Imaging (DDI)
Wang, Qing ; Wang, Yong

— Technology Description Researchers at Washington University in St. Louis have developed MRI post-processing software capable of imaging cellular components. The software matches specific patterns with a dictionary of signals corresponding to cellular components. While the researchers have previous…

LINAC design for radiosurgery with precise 4pi delivery and fast, integrated CT imaging
Mutic, Sasa ; Zhang, Tiezhi

— Technology Description This technology is a patented LINAC (linear accelerator) radiation therapy system designed to enable non-coplanar cone beams to be delivered from all angles by using a ring gantry instead of a robotic moving couch. This simple approach enables easier treatment planning and q…

Real-time interference compensation in MRI guided radiotherapy
Curcuru, Austen ; Gach, H. Michael ; Kim, Taeho ; Villa, Umberto

— Technology Description Researchers at Washington University in St. Louis have developed a method to improve image quality during MR imaging guided radiation therapy (MR-IGRT) by correcting for B0 fluctuation in real-time. The corrections reduce electromagnetic interference (EMI) between the MRI sc…

SPECT imaging nanoprobe for the detection of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity
Achilefu, Samuel ; Black, Kvar

— This invention is the formulation of a SPECT nanoparticle probe for the detection of MMP activity. The surface of a 10 nm-sized gold nanoparticle is functionalized through a thiol anchor with a peptide that is cleaved in the presence of MMP9. The surface is also functionalized with methoxy polyethyl…

Conformationally-flexible benzamide analogs as sigma-2 selective ligands
Mach, Robert ; Rowland, Douglas ; Tu, Zhude "Will" ; Welch, Michael

— The sigma-2 (σ2) receptor is an important target for the development of molecular probes in oncology because of its 10-fold higher density in proliferating tumor cells than in quiescent tumor cells, and the observation that σ2 receptor agonists are able to kill tumor cells via apoptotic …

Machine learning paired with photoacoustic microscopy and ultrasound for improved rectal cancer imaging
Chapman Jr., William "Will Jr" ; Leng, Xiandong ; Mutch, Matthew ; Uddin, Shihab ; Zhu, Quing

— Technology Description: Researchers led by Quing Zhu at Washington University have developed a method for imaging rectal tumors using photoacoustic microscopy and ultrasound with a machine learning component. This method is better able to differentiate residual cancer from healthy tissue following…

Sigma-1 targeted PET tracers
Mach, Robert ; Tu, Zhude "Will" ; Wang, Wei

— Technology Description Researchers at Washington University in St. Louis and their colleagues have developed positron emission tomography (PET) tracers with high affinity for sigma-1 receptors. Sigma receptors have two subtypes, sigma-1 and sigma-2. Sigma-1 has high expression in the limbic and mo…

3D-printed patient-specific applicator for intensity modulated high-dose-rate brachytherapy
Mutic, Sasa ; Park, Chunjoo ; Zhang, Hao

— Technology Description Inventors in Washington University’s Department of Radiation Oncology have developed a method and 3D-printed applicator for intensity modulated high-dose-rate brachytherapy that surpasses conventional brachytherapy efficiency. This device is tailored to the patient…

Machine learning methods for real-time MRI image processing: MRI-only radiation treatment planning and improving MR image resolution
Green, Olga ; Mutic, Sasa ; Park, Chunjoo ; Zhang, Hao

— Technology Description A team of researchers at Washington University School of Medicine developed deep learning image processing techniques to improve MRI diagnostics and potentially enable faster, more precise MRI-guided radiation therapy without exposing patients to radiation from CT imaging. S…

Machine learning method for fast, reliable quality assurance of patient imaging in radiation therapy or computer-aided detection
Altman, Michael ; Green, Olga ; Kavanaugh, James ; Li, Hua ; Mutic, Sasa ; Wooten, Hasani

— Technology Description A team of researchers at Washington University has created a machine learning method to quickly and reliably validate patient contours in digital medical images for radiation therapy and computer aided image analysis. Currently, automated contouring tools for delineating tu…

Hydrogels for localized radiotherapy
Azab, Abdel Kareem ; Azab, Feda ; de la Puente Garcia, Maria del Pilar

— Background External Beam Radiotherapy (EBR) is commonly used after surgical removal of a tumor (in e.g. a breast-conserving surgery) to control or kill malignant cells. The lack of selectivity due to irradiation of whole or partial organs from outside the body, however, is potentially damaging to t…

Multi-Parametric Imaging of Tumor Heterogeneity Using Noninvasive, Non-radiative Water Diffusion
Benzinger, Tammie ; Guzman, Gloria ; Wang, Qing ; Wang, Yong

— Background Currently, biopsies are the only definitive method to diagnose a brain tumor. While PET-CT is used for initial imaging and monitoring of the tumor, after completion of treatments, a 6-8-week delay is usually implemented to avoid false-positive results. Yet, the delay could also result in…

Compositions for targeting pathologic cells and tissues
Achilefu, Samuel ; Liang, Kexian ; Shen, Duanwen ; Tang, Rui ; Xu, Baogang

— Background: Almost 1.7 million new cancer cases are diagnosed in the US each year. Pancreatic cancer is particularly lethal, with an estimated 38,000 deaths in 2013 alone and a 5-year survival rate of 5%. Despite advances in noninvasive imaging modalities, the current gold standard consisting of …

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